The fifth International Conference on Family Planning (ICFP) is focused on the demographic dividend. Its theme title is “Investing for a Lifetime of Returns,” which speaks to the various returns on investment family planning provides, from education and empowerment to economic growth and environmental health. Underlying many of the conference sessions will be a focus on the ways in which countries can harness the benefits of the demographic dividend to reap these returns on the macro and micro levels, and the Demographic Dividend will be a highlighted track.