As of mid-2017, Burkina Faso has a current population of 18.6 million, annual population growth rate of 2.9%, and 48.7% of people in Burkina Faso are under age 15. Use of modern contraceptives remains relatively low, despite ongoing efforts to increase demand for family planning and access to contraceptives. As of January 2017, the Performance Monitoring and Accountability(PMA) 2020 estimated that 26.3% of women use contraceptives to space or limit births and 24.9% use a modern method. The Total Fertility Rate, or the average number of children per woman over the course of her lifetime, is declining but remains high: it reduced from 6.9 children in 1990 to 5.7 children per woman in 2015.
Population pyramids can be used to show change in population age structure over time. Here we can see that the Burkina Faso age structure has not remarkably started to shift to older ages.
In addition to showing change to age structure over time, the Population pyramids can be used to show projected changes to age structure in the future. Looking at the population pyramids of Burkina Faso, not much change to age structure is anticipated until between 2030 and 2050.
The broad bases of the pyramids “Burkina Faso 1970”, “Burkina Faso 1990”, “Burkina Faso 2010”, represent a large number of children in relation to the working age population. The shape of these pyramids is also characteristic of a population with high mortality. Indeed, total fertility in Burkina Faso has remained high over the last four decades. Fertility actually slightly rose from 1970 when the average woman had 6.7 children over the course of her life to 6.9 children per woman in 1990. By 2010, total fertility rates dropped mildly to 6.1 children per woman and was 5.7 children per woman in 2015. “Burkina Faso 2030” is the United Nations projection of Burkina Faso population age structure if fertility declines at a moderate rate. This pyramid assumes that by 2030, fertility will decline to an average of 4.5 children per woman over the course of her lifetime, which will require significant commitment on the part of the government of Burkina Faso and civil society. In “Burkina Faso 2050,” projections show the base of the population pyramid narrowing, representing a lower fertility rate estimated at 3.3 children per woman and the age structure of the population beginning to change.
Working Towards a Demographic Dividend in Burkina Faso
If Burkina Faso makes substantial investments in reproductive health, family planning, and girls’ education, a fertility decline will likely occur, and children will be more likely to achieve better basic levels of health. With additional investments in health and education and economic initiatives to facilitate job creation, Burkina Faso may be able to experience the rapid economic growth known as a demographic dividend. However, this will need substantial efforts and investment because the population of Burkina Faso between 0-14 years of age will remain close to half of the population for the next few decades.
Population Reference Bureau, 2014 World Population Data Sheet, (Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau, 2014).
United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, (New York: United Nations, 2013).
World Bank Group. (2014) World DataBank. Retrieved from http://databank.worldbank.org/data/home.aspx
Education statistics were taken from the most recent Demographic and Health Survey for each country.
World Bank Group. (2014) Worldwide Governance Indicators. Retrieved from http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/index.aspx#home
World Economic Forum, Global Competitiveness Report 2014-2015, (Geneva: Switzerland, 2014).
Performance Monitoring and accountability PMA2020
World Health Organization-Adolescent contraceptive use brief
Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income or consumption expenditure among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. Thus, a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.
Dependency ratio is the ratio of dependents--people younger than 15 or older than 64-to the working-age population--those ages 15 to 64. Although each country’s experience is different, countries that have realized a demographic dividend typically have a dependency ratio of less than 50 dependents for every 100 working-age adults.
Worldwide Governance Indicators are measured on a scale from -2.5 to +2.5. The closer to 2.5 the rating is, the stronger the governance. Government Effectiveness is a composite governance indicator with data from multiple sources. Political stability and Absence of Violence/Terrorism is a composite governance indicator with data from multiple sources More information on methodology available at: http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/index.aspx#home
Global Competitiveness Index defines competitiveness as the set of institutions, policies and factors that determine the level of productivity of a country. The level of productivity, in turn, sets the level of prosperity that can be earned by an economy. The different aspects of competitiveness are captured in 12 pillars, ranging from institutional strength to market size. http://reports.weforum.org/global-competitiveness-report-2014-2015/